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The Basics of Data Communication

Data communication is the key element that connects us with the devices and services we depend on in our interconnected digital world. It is comprised of a variety of methods and media that dictate how information is transferred from one end to another. Understanding how this works can help us create efficient and reliable networks that deliver the benefits of increased connectivity, such as improved business efficiency and productivity as well as improvements in automation.

The basic concept of data communication is the transmission of data from one computer to another via the medium or channel. This can be accomplished via cables, radio frequency, satellite signal or wirelessly. The sender is the individual or device transmitting data, and the receiver is the device that receives the data. A data communication network can include more than two computers involved in the process of communication.

Multiplexing and demultiplexing are effective technology for communication that allows multiple signals to be sent across a medium simultaneously, optimizing bandwidth utilization and reducing costs. Both processes require special hardware that is able to combine and then separate these signals. This is usually done by custom integrated circuits, which are found in a variety of communication devices including cell phones, computers and printers.

Full-duplex communication is the mode of data communications that allows simultaneous two-way communication within a pair of devices. This is a more complex mode than simplex transmission because it requires the capability to send and receive data at the same time.


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